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George Santayana

| 16 grudnia 2010 | 0 Komentarzy

Santayana150 years ago , 16th of December 1863 – Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás , known as George Santayana was born in Madrid, a philosopher, an essayist , a literary critic, poet and a novelist , as a son of a Spanish diplomat he stayed in the United States (Boston ) from the age of six, studied and then taught at Harvard University until 1912 anglicisating his name , after several years in Paris and Oxford he finally settled in Rome , where he died in 1952 , in philosophy he combined two ontological realities: Democritus materialism with Platonic idealism reconciling them so that the real world together with the knowledge ( which is not a substance , but a state of matter having the capacity to act ) he considered "the kingdom of matter" , nevertheless , beyond which in potentia exists a world of eternals’ , of ideal essences , that a person can renew within a religion, metaphysics , poetry and politics, forming the "kingdom of the spirit" , although an unbeliever , he admired the Catholic Church ( while feeling disgust for Puritanism ), and described himself as a "Catholic aesthetic" (the last ten years of his life spent in a Roman monastery ) in politics a definite conservative (counted amongst the " pessimistic conservatives " ) and an elitist who rejected the democratic " dogma " about the identity of all people and the liberal understanding of freedom as the right to an unrestrained individualist action favouring the Greek idea of ​​freedom instead, determining the pattern of moral perfection of a man, which does not preclude submission to authority , "the leaders by birth ", i.e. able to control their irrational impulses, his ideal was a monarchy built on the model of the Church and restraint by the aristocratic representation, but he also allowed for " Timocracy , "or government " of excellent people ."

 

prof. Jacek Bartyzel

translated by Arek Jakubczyk

 

Kategoria: Reactionary Diary

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